He helped prevent a war with Great Britain over the Oregon Territory and, after retiring, studied the cultures of Native Americans. Gallatin and a friend arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 1780 with a shipment of tea they hoped would produce a large profit for them. Gallatin is best known for serving as Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Outliving many of his colleagues from the early days of the republic, he died on 12 August 1849. . . In 1788 he was elected as a delegate to a meeting to propose amendments to the new U.S. Constitution. Encyclopedia.com. In his retirement he also pursued an interest in Native Americans, writing and sponsoring a number of ethnographic works about various tribes. He and his family then took up permanent residence in New York City. The following year, he was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature as a representative of Fayette County. ." The couple would have two sons and four daughters. After serving briefly as minister to Great Britain (1826–27), he retired from public life and became president of the National (later the Gallatin) Bank in New York City (1831–39). Albert Gallatin: Early America's Swiss-Born Statesman. It is located about 30.6 miles northeast of the state capital of Nashville, Tennessee. He took an oath of allegiance to the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1785. As secretary of the Treasury, Gallatin stressed simplicity in government and termination of the public debt. He supported the founding of a state bank, greater control over the currency, retirement of public debt, and greater accountability of the Treasury Department to the legislature. An ardent advocate of education and foe of illiteracy, as governor of Mississippi in 1844-48, he was largely responsible for the creation of a public school system in Mississippi and… Despite Federalist opposition, Gallatin succeeded in establishing a standing committee on finance (today the House Ways and Means Committee) to centralize legislative efforts to control the nation’s finances. Gallatin did not support the tax, but he spoke out in favor of the need for it at various public gatherings. Reprint, New York: Chelsea House, 1983. Before the war was over Gallatin resigned as secretary of the treasury and went to Europe as an American diplomat. Kuppenheimer, L. B., Albert Gallatin's vision of democratic stability: an interpretive profile, Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996. Gallatin carried out surveying, mapped the interior, and registered land titles until an Indian uprising forced him to retreat. Gallatin recommended that the First Bank of the United States be rechartered. The Embargo of 1807 and the War of 1812 ruined these plans as government revenues sank with the disruption of trade and expenses rose for waging war. 21 Dec. 2020 . Settling in Pennsylvania, he became a mainstay of the anti-Federalists (and, later, the Jeffersonian Republicans) in that area and in 1795 was elected to the House of Representatives. This is a List of National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania.There are 169 in the state. After eight years as one of the most influential figures in He headed northward to Machias, Maine, where he hoped to sell his supplies to the local Native Americans, farmers, and soldiers stationed there. After Jefferson’s election as president in 1800, Gallatin naturally became secretary of the treasury, a post he held into the administration of James Madison, resigning in 1814. IF YOU WANT TO HELP: For information about how to donate to Albert Gallatin Human Services Agency, please call 724-583-7822. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). They elected him to the U.S. House of Representatives that fall. In 1811 Congress refused to recharter the Bank of the United States, despite Gallatin’s objections, further undermining the currency. By publishing a number of reports and pamphlets, Gallatin kept the public aware of his views and activities. In 1790 he was elected to the Pennsylvania assembly. Settling in New York, Gallatin served as president of the National Bank from 1831 until his retirement in 1839. What will they do at the intersection of Blythe/Old 109 North? Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. However, Crawford fell ill and Gallatin decided it was time to retire and Gallatin served in the Pennsylvania state legislature from 1790 to 1792. Pledged to reduce the national debt and eliminate the excise tax, he projected a plan to pay off the debt by 1817, outlined proposals for appropriations for specified purposes, advocated promotion of manufacturing, and argued for constructing a nationwide network of roads and canals with Federal aid. The delegates at Harrisburg met to consider proposed revisions to the U.S. Constitution that Pennsylvania ratified in December 1787. After acquiring an education, Gallatin left for North America in the spring of 1780 and ended up in Pennsylvania, where he entered politics in 1788 as an Anti-Federalist (one who objected to certain features of the new Constitution). Along with several other peace commissioners, appointed by Madison to end the war with England, Gallatin set sail for Europe in the spring of 1813 while still serving as treasury secretary. With Thomas Jefferson's presidency in 1800 and the triumph of the Republicans, Gallatin was named to head the Treasury Department. Because his candidacy created so much controversy, he dropped out of the race. In what became known as the Louisiana Purchase, the United States bought 800,000 square miles for $15 million, although Congress had authorized only $2 million for a much smaller area. Need for Federal Programs . He had outlived many of his colleagues from the early days of the American republic. Albert graduated in 1779; the following year, just weeks short of his nineteenth birthday, he boarded a ship for America in search of his fortune. He held this position longer than had any other secretary of the Treasury, serving from 1801 to 1814. Gallatin earned a reputation as an expert in the area of public finance, and he was considered an able spokesman for the small farms and businesses he represented. ." Disappointed by the results, Gallatin purchased a wagon and loaded it with sugar, tobacco, and rum. "Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) C- Albert Gallatin convinced Jefferson to sign the Alien & Sedition Act. Albert Gallatin is considered one of the most influential men of the early American Republic, and one of the most prominent Swiss-Americans in U.S. history. Gallatin.". In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. By 1789, Gallatin had completed the rustic mansion which he called Friendship Hill. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Gallatin set out to survey and register their holdings in April 1784. "Albert Gallatin "Gallatin, Albert It was in public finance where he made his greatest contribution, however, ironically by promoting policies favored by the Federalists for both Pennsylvania and the nation. New York: Macmillan, 1957. He entered the House of Representatives in 1795 and became the most knowledgeable Republican on public finance. Distraught, Gallatin considered returning to Geneva. A young man of the age of the Enlightenment, he was sympathetic to the American Revolution and sailed for America in 1780, happy to be in "the freest country in the universe.". But this final phase of his life yielded irony as well as accomplishment. American Eras. Visionary . First in state politics and then at the federal level, he advocated reforms sought by his western constituents which were at the heart of the policies of the Jeffersonian party of the 1790s. While in office, he set up the House Committee on Finance, which was the forerunner of the present-day Ways and Means Committee (see box). Encyclopedia of World Biography. The declaration of war with Great Britain in 1812 shattered all of Gallatin’s most cherished schemes, for he felt war to be fatal to the nation’s prosperity and progress. Encyclopedia.com. Indeed, his strong European accent would remain a factor throughout his political career. Sketch of the Finances of the United States was published in 1796, and Views of the Public Debt, Receipts, and Expenditures was published in 1800. Western Politics . During Albert's time at the Academy, his natural abilities and intelligence were recognized by several renowned scholars. When federal troops arrived at the end of summer to put down the rebellion, they found only a few remaining lawbreakers who were taken to Philadelphia for trial. We understand that this is a difficult time and that some individuals may need additional support during this period. Albert Gallatin was born on 29 January 1761 into an aristocratic French family with a history of over four hundred years of leadership in the area around Geneva in what is now Switzerland. In 1782 he was appointed a tutor at Harvard College. He was bitterly denounced by Federalists in Congress, and, when the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed in 1798, Thomas Jefferson believed they were partly intended to drive Gallatin from office. . The purchase instantly doubled the size of the United States. Why are they doing construction at N. Water/Dobbins Pike/Albert Gallatin? Gallatin died in 1849 in Astoria, New York. Albert Gallatin, in full Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, (born Jan. 29, 1761, Geneva, Switz.—died Aug. 12, 1849, Astoria, N.Y., U.S.), fourth U.S. secretary of the Treasury (1801–14). After Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as U.S. president in March 1801, Gallatin became the secretary of the treasury. ." The anti-Federalists opposed the creation of a stronger national government as recently created at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787. Albert Gallatin, by Rembrandt Peale, from life, 1805. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gallatin-albert-1761-1849-0, "Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) . Jefferson's Cabinet, Gallatin continued to serve as secretary of the treasury under President Madison. “I think the most important thing in the book,” he said, “is the description in chapter 6 of why Gallatin and the other Republicans wanted to undo Hamilton’s system. Merrill D. Peterson The sites below are just a sampling of what is available: Archiving Early America: The Whiskey Rebellion http://www.earlyamerica.com/milestone-events/whiskey-rebellion/ "The Whiskey Rebellion," in The History of Bedford and Somerset Counties, by E. Howard Blackburn and William H. Welfley. Gallatin served as U.S. ambassador to France and to England before ending a public career that lasted almost four decades. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1958. As the third secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin faced many obstacles. Quickly establishing a reputation for hard work and integrity, Gallatin became a skillful and logical orator. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He also sought to fund internal improvements to open up the western territories, including plans for $20 million worth of canals and roads connecting eastern rivers with the Mississippi. After a winter as a merchant in Maine, and a brief time with the colonial militia, Gallatin tutored in French in Boston in 1781. Ralph Ketcham All bills proposing to raise revenue must originate in the House and go through the Committee on Ways and Means. . He was an important leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, serving in various federal elective and appointed positions across four decades. Omissions? He served as American minister to France (1816-1823). When James Madison retired in 1797, Gallatin became the Republican spokesman in the House. American Eras. Gallatin pushed for a level of equality of opportunity and a public land policy where the government helped all citizens, not just an elite group of merchants and speculators. Gallatin served for eight years under President Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826; served 1801–9; see entry in volume 1) and then for four more years under President James Madison (1751–1836; served 1809–17; see entry in volume 2). 8. 21 Dec. 2020 . Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. He published his findings in A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British and Russian Possessions of North America. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Gallatin approached Savary with a land development project. His wife Hannah died in May 1849, and the shock of his wife's death weakened Gallatin even further. The following year, in 1824, Gallatin agreed to run as the vice presidential candidate on the Democratic-Republican ticket with the current secretary of the treasury, William H. Crawford (1772–1834). Albert Gallatin was born in Geneva, Switzerland, on Jan. 29, 1761. Six subcommittees—on Trade, Oversight, Health, Social Security, Human Resources, and Select Revenue Measures—operate within the Committee on Ways and Means. The resulting Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. A militia is an organized military force, made up of citizens, that serves in times of emergency. He was a close friend of the fur-trade magnate John Jacob Astor. United States Department of the Treasury.http://www.treas.gov/offices/management/curator/collection (accessed on August 13, 2005). However, when Gallatin took his Senate seat, the Federalists challenged his eligibility, based on the fact that he had not applied for citizenship early enough to meet technical citizenship requirements. Gallatin's public career ended with his final report relating to the Maine boundary dispute. He opposed the annexation of Texas, and he considered the Mexican American War (1846–48) an act of aggression by the United States. He graduated from the Academy of Geneva in 1779. Encyclopedia.com. He was ultimately successful in framing the Treaty of Ghent of December 1814, which secured a number of economic advantages for the United States despite the nation’s poor military record in the war. He became the Society's first president and published several more papers. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He owned land in Monongalia County, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), but his permanent residence was actually in the neighboring county of Fayette, Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Special studies include Frederick Merk, Albert Gallatin and the Oregon Problem: A Study in Anglo-American Diplomacy (1950); Leonard D. White, The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801-1829 (1951); and Alexander Balinsky, Albert Gallatin: Fiscal Theories and Policies (1958). ." Pennsylvania. A: Because Gallatin is the least understood of the half dozen men who set the American government into motion. RC (DLC); undated; addressed: “The President”; endorsed by TJ as a letter of 26 Oct. received from the Treasury Department on the same day and “paimt of interest at Paris. The House first created a Committee on Ways and Means on July 24, 1789, during its opening session, but it was disbanded after only two months. He also suggested that certain roads be constructed to connect the new cities within the West. Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. "History of the Treasury: Secretaries of the Treasury—Albert Gallatin." A reorganization in 1865 separated the Committee on Ways and Means into three parts, with one new branch becoming the Committee on Banking and Commerce and a second new branch becoming the Committee on Appropriations. Gallatin, by contrast, realized that in order for the U.S. economy to expand in a way that benefited the most people, some federal programs were necessary. Adams, Henry, Albert Gallatin, New York: Chelsea House, 1983. Gallatin played an important mediating role during the 1794 Whiskey Rebellion, an uprising of western Pennsylvanians angered by federal liquor taxes. "Albert Gallatin in Pennsylvania." Political Origins . James Monroe Encyclopedia of World Biography. The other is the U.S. Senate. Gallatin established a system of regular financial reports to Congress and worked hard to reduce the national debt in order to secure the nation’s independence. A good biography of Gallatin is Raymond Walters, Jr., Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat (1957), though the older study by Henry Adams, The Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), remains useful. Despite overwhelming challenges, Gallatin was able to reduce the public debt by over $30 million by 1812. (December 21, 2020). He served from 1795 until 1801, becoming the leader of the Democratic-Republican minority in 1797. Aitken, Thomas. □. That will become a three … Pennsylvanians elected him to the U.S. Senate in 1793, but Gallatin was denied his seat, ostensibly because he had not been a U.S. citizen for nine years. Gallatin pushed for roads and canals connecting the East to the newly settled West. His greatest contribution came in the field of public finance. Land speculation is the buying of undeveloped frontier land cheaply with the intention of later reselling it to settlers at a higher price, thus making a profit. Treasury Secretary. Albert Gallatin was the fourth U.S. secretary of the treasury, serving from 1801 until 1814. Walters, Raymond, Jr. Albert Gallatin: Jeffersonian Financier and Diplomat. American Eras. (December 21, 2020). New York: Vantage Press, 1985. Having a strong interest in education, Gallatin in 1830 helped found New York University. Albert Gallatin and James Madison worked to reestablish a legislative finance committee to monitor government taxes and spending. Listed in the tables below are the 102 NHLs outside Philadelphia. At the same time he had his own vision of the future of the United States, which included federal aid for the economic development of the Trans-Appalachian West. Since its founding in 1831, NYU has been an innovator in higher education, reaching out to an emerging middle class, embracing an urban identity and professional focus, and promoting a global vision that informs its 19 schools and colleges. 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