Jean Gallatin, a prosperous merchant, died in 1765, followed by Sophie in April 1770. In December 1814, the two sides agreed to sign the Treaty of Ghent, which essentially represented a return to the status quo ante bellum. In the aftermath of the war, he helped found the Second Bank of the United States. Restrictions on Access. [49], In 1810, Gallatin published Report on the Subject of Manufactures, in which he unsuccessfully urged Congress to create a $20 million federal loan program to support fledgling manufacturers. Albert Gallatin He served his adopted country for 60 years as a congressional leader, Secretary of the Treasury, financier, ambassador and has been referred to as America’s Swiss Founding Father. They reached Cape Ann on July 14 and arrived in Boston the next day, traveling the intervening thirty miles by horseback. Élete. Honors. The British could have chosen to shift resources to North America after the temporary defeat of Napoleon in April 1814, but, as Gallatin learned from Alexander Baring, many in Britain were tired of fighting. The Gallatin School of Individualized Study at New York University honors his founding. He considered resigning from government service, but Madison convinced him to stay on as a key cabinet official and adviser. [40] He presided over dramatic reductions in military spending, particularly for the United States Navy. [30] In the contingent election that decided the outcome of the 1800 presidential election, Gallatin helped Thomas Jefferson secure victory over his ostensible running mate, Aaron Burr. “[F]or its time,” writes Irish scholar Terry Coleman, “it was gigantic, and so were its warehouses with their cast-iron Doric pillars. Gallatin did not join in the rebellion, but criticized the military response of the President George Washington's administration as an overreaction. [ citation needed ]. [43] To help develop western lands, Gallatin advocated for internal improvements such as roads and canals, especially those that would connect to territories west of the Appalachian Mountains. [37] When Gallatin took office in 1801, the national debt stood at $83 million. While waiting abroad in the hope of future negotiations, Gallatin was replaced as Secretary of the Treasury by George W. Campbell, with the expectation that Gallatin would take up his old post upon his return to the United States. Declining another term at the Treasury, Gallatin served as Ambassador to France from 1816 to 1823, struggling with scant success to improve relations with the government during the Bourbon Restoration. He served in the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives. Returning to Pennsylvania, Gallatin helped calm many angry farmers during the Whiskey Rebellion. [13] Gallatin inherited a significant sum of money the following year, and he used that money to purchase a 400-acre plot of land in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. Albert Gallatin (1761-1849), an emigrant from Switzerland, was a leader of Pennsylvania’s Democratic-Republican party. Carrying letters of recommendation from eminent Americans (including Benjamin Franklin) that the Gallatin family procured, the young men left France in May, sailing on an American ship, "the Kattie". Gallatin retained much of Hamilton's financial system, though he also presided over a reduction in the national debt prior to the War of 1812. The American statesman, Albert Gallatin, was born in Geneva on the 29th of January 1761. Literally. He became the chief spokesman on financial matters for the Democratic-Republican Party, leading opposition to the Federalist economic program. Patrick and William boarded the Albert Gallatin at Liverpool, previously a great center of the British slave trade. ", Gallatin was born on January 29, 1761, in Geneva, [4] and was until 1785 a citizen of the Republic of Geneva. However, with the American Revolution only a decade ended, the senators were leery of anything which might hint that they intended to establish an aristocracy, so they opened up their chamber for the first time for the debate over whether to unseat Gallatin. [12], Gallatin disliked living in New England, instead preferring to become a farmer in the Trans-Appalachian West, which at that point was the frontier of American settlement. In 1785, he became an American citizen after he swore allegiance to the state of Virginia. Albert Gallatin. Now orphaned, Gallatin was taken into the care of Mademoiselle Pictet, a family friend and distant relative of Gallatin's father. ", CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of November 2020 (, , Secretary of Treasury & U.S. AKA Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin., The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration [68] He drew upon government contacts to research Native Americans, gathering information through Lewis Cass, explorer William Clark, and Thomas McKenney of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. [17] With most of his business ventures unsuccessful, Gallatin sold much of his land, excluding Friendship Hill, to Robert Morris; he and his wife would instead live in Philadelphia and other coastal cities for most of the rest of their lives. However, on November 1, 1793, he married Hannah Nicholson, daughter of the well-connected Commodore James Nicholson. Get Accredited Login Welcome to BBB Northwest + Pacific. [29] During the Quasi-War with France, Gallatin criticized military expenditures and opposed passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Albert Gallatin. [7] [8] While attending the academy, Gallatin read deeply in philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, along with the French Physiocrats; he became dissatisfied with the traditionalism of Geneva. [56] Though the war with Britain had at best been a stalemate, Gallatin was pleased that it resulted in the consolidation of U.S. control over western territories, as the British withdrew their support from dissident Native Americans who had sought to create an independent state in the Great Lakes region. Abraham Alfonse Albert de Gallatin, né le 29 janvier 1761 à Genève et mort le 12 août 1849 à New York, quartier d'Astoria dans le Queens, est une personnalité politique et un diplomate genevois et américain, secrétaire du Trésor de 1801 à 1814, et fondateur de l'université de New York en 1831. The Gallatin River, named by the Lewis and Clark expedition, is one of three rivers (along with the Jefferson River and the Madison River) that converge near Three Forks, Montana to form the Missouri River. Congressman at, United States Minister to the United Kingdom, NYU's Gallatin School of Individualized Study, Albert Gallatin House; Friendship Hill National Historic Site, List of foreign-born United States Cabinet Secretaries, List of United States Senators born outside the United States, To James Madison from William Jones, 14 January 1813, How Britain Won the War of 1812: The Royal Navy's Blockades of the United States, 1812–1815, "Rush-Bagot Pact, 1817 and Convention of 1818", "A Synopsis of the Indian Tribes Within the United States East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British and Russian Possessions in North America", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, "Index to Politicians: Gallaher to Gallmeyer", Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, "REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY ON THE SUBJECT OF PUBLIC ROADS AND CANALS", United States Senator (Class 1) from Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district, United States Secretaries of the Treasury, Ambassadors of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Center on the Administration of Criminal Law, Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy, Journal of Intellectual Property and Entertainment Law, Journal of International Law and Politics, NYU Catherine B. Reynolds Program for Social Entrepreneurship, Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management, Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Eastern Intercollegiate Volleyball Association, Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Archives, List of New York University honorary degree recipients, List of Presidents of New York University, Culture, Education, and Human Development, Mingo Creek Presbyterian Church and Churchyard, Lobb's Cemetery and Yohogania County Courthouse Site. Although the national bank had been established as part of Hamilton's economic program, and Jefferson believed that it was "one of the most deadly hostility existing against the principles and form of our Constitution," Gallatin saw the national bank as a key part of the country's financial system. He also sold U.S. securities to investors, and an infusion of cash from wealthy investors Stephen Girard, John Jacob Astor, and David Parish proved critical to the financing of the war. 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