“The Role of the Mentally Ill and the Dynamics of Mental Disorder.” Sociometry 26:436–453. Nr.47, 2008-2009). Talcott Parsons (1951) was the first to discuss this in terms of the sick role: patterns of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them. Medicalization and demedicalization affect who responds to the patient, how people respond to the patient, and how people view the personal responsibility of the patient (Conrad and Schneider 1992). Legal protections have been put in place, yet the stigma and discrimination remain prevalent. Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Illness; Nobody downloaded yet. Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. The interactionist perspective is concerned with how social interactions construct ideas of health and illness. Self-care can be defined as the care of oneself without medical, professional, or other assistance or oversight. While working at Indiana University Orem’s goal was to upgrade the quality of nursin… A health system and societal context perspective is helpful in order to understand the pharmacists’ roles in respect to antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance. This has since been reinterpreted, unsurprisingly, as a completely appropriate response to being enslaved. Activities Combating HIV Stigma and Discrimination. What examples of medicalization and demedicalization can you think of? Under this perspective, as our perception of a condition changes, so do the social consequences of that condition. According to theorists working in this perspective, health and illness are both socially constructed. In the United States, a disproportionate number of racial minorities also have less economic power, so they bear a great deal of the burden of poor health. While conflict theorists are right to point out certain inequalities in the healthcare system, and their critiques have propelled equity-driven policy, they do not give enough credit to medical advances that would not have been made without an economic structure to support and reward researchers, a structure that has typically been dependent on profitability. HIV continues to be an epidemic in parts of Africa, not necessarily because of stigma, but because of the lack of available treatment resources. A more recent example is homosexuality, which was labeled a mental disorder or a sexual orientation disturbance by the American Psychological Association until 1973. Until we de-stigmatize the condition itself, and despite the implementation of policy, individual acts of discrimination will likely continue. The cognitive approach studies how our thought process shapes our behavior. This perspective assumes that meaning is derived from everyday social interaction, and thus, is a social construct. Which theoretical perspective do you think best explains the sociology of health? The responsibility of the sick person is twofold: to try to get well and to seek technically competent help from a physician. In the United States, a disproportionate number of racial minorities also have less economic power, so they bear a great deal of the burden of poor health. According to the functionalist perspective, health is vital to the stability of the society, and therefore sickness is a sanctioned form of deviance. Discrimination is often the result of stigma towards specific groups or medical conditions. Because of their illness, individuals with HIV/AIDS have lost jobs, been denied educational opportunities, been kicked out of their homes, or have been mistreated (or not treated at all) by the healthcare system. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. And what about people who are sick, but are unwilling to leave their positions for any number of reasons? (e.g., personal/social obligations, financial need, or lack of insurance). An example of medicalization is illustrated by the history of how our society views alcohol and alcoholism. To start with, they have not chosen to be sick and should not be treated as responsible for their condition. But is it appropriate to allow doctors so broad discretion in deciding who is and is not sick? Although drawing particularly on empirical evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the paper aims to stimulate thinking across country settings. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. 1951. Which of the following is not part of the rights and responsibilities of a sick person under the functionalist perspective? "Download for free at, If you redistribute part of this textbook, then you must retain in every digital format page view (including but not limited to EPUB, PDF, and HTML) and on every physical printed page the following attribution: In this model, doctors serve as gatekeepers, deciding who is healthy and who is sick—a relationship in which the doctor has all the power. In this engraving from the nineteenth century, “King Alcohol” is shown with a skeleton on a barrel of alcohol. This creates significant health care—and health—disparities between the dominant and subordinate groups. During the Civil War era, slaves who frequently ran away from their owners were diagnosed with a mental disorder called drapetomania. Talcott Parsons (1951) was the first to discuss this in terms of the sick role: patterns of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory, is one of the most extensively used models in nursing. It can b… It focuses on mental processes such as thinking, memory, problem solving, and language. KEYWORDS health care, seeking behaviour, theoretical models, rural women, healthcare services ABSTRACT Health care has received a greater signicance today in order to achieve a Healthy Society. The words “poverty,” “misery,” “crime,” and “death” hang in the air behind him. They therefore ensure that they will have health care coverage, while simultaneously ensuring that subordinate groups stay subordinate through lack of access. According to conflict theorists, capitalism and the pursuit of profit lead to the commodification of health: the changing of something not generally thought of as a commodity into something that can be bought and sold in a marketplace. It is a micro-theoretical approach that focuses on understanding how meaning is generated through processes of social interaction. You can also download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected], http://openstaxcollege.org/l/addiction\_medicalization, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected], Apply functionalist, conflict theorist, and interactionist perspectives to health issues. Within the academic discipline of sociology, two major theoretical perspectives exist which seek to analyse human societies utilising a social structural or systems approach. (May 2017). Why? Retrieved from. The Social System. Scheff, Thomas. Thus, “badness” was transformed into “sickness.”. The responsibility of the sick person is twofold: to try to get well and to seek technically competent help from a physician. Read Text. The Critical Theoretical Perspectives and the Health Care System Daisy Michelle Princeton1 Abstract Background of the study: The goal of healthcare system is to achieve a well-organized, safe and holistic patient care. Alongside the health disparities created by class inequalities, there are a number of health inequalities created by racism, sexism, ageism, and LGBTQ+ discrimination. Further adding to the issue, doctors hold a disproportionate amount of power in the doctor/patient relationship, which provides them with extensive social and economic benefits. The removal of homosexuality from the DSM is an example of ____________. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. The authors critically examine the relevance of postcolonial theoretical perspectives to nursing research in the area of Aboriginal health. According to the functionalist perspective, health is vital to the stability of the society, and therefore sickness is a sanctioned form of deviance. Theoretical Perspectives for Group Therapy. OpenStax CNX. They discuss key theoretical underpinnings of postcolonial theory, citing differences and commonalities in postcolonial theory, postcolonial indigenous thinking, and other forms of critical theory. Theoretical perspective Major assumptions; Functionalism: Good health and effective medical care are essential for the smooth functioning of society. A related process is demedicalization, in which “sick” behavior is normalized again. Alongside the health disparities created by class inequalities, there are a number of health disparities created by racism, sexism, ageism, and heterosexism. When health is a commodity, the poor are more likely to experience illness caused by poor diet, to live and work in unhealthy environments, and are less likely to challenge the system. During the latter half of the 20th century, however, people who drank too much were increasingly defined as alcoholics: people with a disease or a genetic predisposition to addiction who were not responsible for their drinking. While the functionalist perspective looks at how health and illness fit into a fully functioning society, the conflict perspective is concerned with how health and illness fit into the oppositional forces in society. The term medicalization of deviance refers to the process that changes “bad” behavior into “sick” behavior. During the Civil War era, slaves who frequently ran away from their owners were diagnosed with a mental disorder called drapetomania. The amount of nursing intervention depends on the ability or inability to achieve self-care needs. The purpose of theory is to have a solid foundation when you are studying, assessing, or implementing an intervention. Patients must perform the “sick role” in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be exempt from their normal obligations. of Hours: 20 Term: Michaelmas Assessment Date: Week 16 Module Leader: Jean Morrissey Lecturers: Jean Morrissey, Mike Watts, Brian Keogh Aims This article provides a glossary of perspectives, processes, and settings that pertain to an ecological approach in health research. [1] Most importantly, because of the stigma attached to the disease, individuals have foregone medical assistance and have passed away as a consequence. Module Name: Theoretical Perspectives on Mental Health/Illness Module Code: NU1P01 ECTS: 5 No. While interactionism does acknowledge the subjective nature of diagnosis, it is important to remember who most benefits when a behavior becomes defined as illness or condition. Medicine is the social institution that diagnoses, treats, and prevents disease. During the latter half of the twentieth century, however, people who drank too much were increasingly defined as alcoholics: people with a disease or a genetic predisposition to addiction who were not responsible for their drinking. For many years now, homosexual couples have been denied spousal benefits, either in the form of health insurance or in terms of medical responsibility. The sick person can take as long as she wants to get better. This stigma is rooted in the perception of an undesirable condition or attribute. However, the existing healthcare system of today remains fragmented and complex (St. Meld. They were called drunks, and it was not uncommon for them to be arrested or run out of a town. Parsons argues that since the sick are unable to fulfill their normal societal roles, their sickness weakens the society. This what honestly sets a PMHNP (or nurses) apart from a social worker, physicians, and other disciplines. Medicalization and demedicalization affect who responds to the patient, how people respond to the patient, and how people view the personal responsibility of the patient (Conrad and Schneider 1992). As the field has developed, there is a growing need for a critical appraisal of the ideologies and theories underpinning health communication in order to ensure effective practice. Patients must perform the “sick role” in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be exempt from their normal obligations. The sick person is exempt from the normal duties of society. Cognitive psychology believes that internal mental states such as desire, belief, ideas, and motivation exist. Many factors like sex, age, type of illness, access to services and perceived quality of the services, inuences the health seeking behaviour. This creates strife within the larger healthcare system and also results in personal health disparities between the dominant and subordinate groups. For many years, and only until very recently, homosexual couples had been denied spousal benefits, either in the form of health insurance or in terms of medical responsibility. When health is a commodity, the poor are more likely to experience illness caused by inadequate diet, to live and work in unhealthy environments, and are less likely to challenge the system or its authority. What examples of medicalization and demedicalization can you think of? In this view, people with money and power—the dominant group—are the ones who make decisions about how the health care system will be run. I was curious to know what your theoretical perspective is based. The sick person is not responsible for his condition. There are numerous examples of demedicalization in history as well. Figure 1. Hiv.gov. Therefore, it is sometimes necessary for various forms of social control to bring the behavior of a sick person back in line with normal expectations. Theory helps with expressing the dynamics of nursing care and patient outcomes. The inequality that is seen in other spheres and institutions is pervasive in healthcare access, further accumulating disadvantage to already subordinate groups. Moreover, medical providers function as dispensers of resources for the healing of the sick. The class, race, and gender inequalities in our healthcare system support the _____________ perspective. Thus, “badness” was transformed into “sickness.”. Pharmaceutical companies make billions treating illnesses such as fatigue, insomnia, and hyperactivity that may not actually be illnesses in need of treatment, but opportunities for companies to make more money. A related process is demedicalization, in which “sick” behavior is normalized again. The second clip shares the story of Joe and his experiences dealing with the stigma of being HIV positive. An ecological perspective on health emphasises both individual and contextual systems and the interdependent relations between the two. These perspectives are structural functionalism and Marxism, and their very different organising principles are described in relation to the social determination of health outcomes below. Apply functionalist, conflict theorist, and interactionist perspectives to health issues. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. Also at issue for conflict theorists and their critics is the degree to which the hard-won medical expertise possessed by doctors and not patients might render a truly mutual understanding elusive. Sociological Perspective on Health This definition emphasizes the importance of being more than disease free, and recognizes that a healthy body depends upon a healthy environment and a stable mind. They were called drunks, and it was not uncommon for them to be arrested or run out of a town. Pharmaceutical companies make billions treating illnesses such as fatigue, insomnia, and hyperactivity that may not actually be illnesses in need of treatment. We’d love your input. According to Parsons, the sick person has a specific role with both rights and responsibilities. To start with, she has not chosen to be sick and should not be treated as responsible for her condition. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. According to the functionalist perspective, health is vital to the stability of the society, and therefore sickness is a sanctioned form of deviance. 1992. Understand how the three different perspectives view health and illness. But is it appropriate to allow doctors so much power over deciding who is sick? Therefore, it is sometimes necessary for various forms of social control to bring the behavior of a sick person back in line with normal expectations. The interactionist perspective was developed by American sociologist George Herbert Mead. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. Sociological Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Illness - Term Paper Example. In this view, people with money and power—the dominant group—are the ones who make decisions about how the healthcare system will be run. Take HIV/AIDS, for example. It has 3 key areas of work: Strengthening public health intelligence; Further adding to the issue, doctors hold a disproportionate amount of power in the doctor/patient relationship, which provides them with extensive social and economic benefits. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. As we discussed in the beginning of the chapter, interactionists focus on the specific meanings and causes people attribute to illness. Dr. Dombeck I am a graduate student at the University of South Florida and I have been surfing your site. With alcoholism defined as a disease and not a personal choice, alcoholics came to be viewed with more compassion and understanding. According to Parsons, the sick person has a specific role with both rights and responsibilities. The term medicalization of deviance refers to the process that changes “bad” behavior into “sick” behavior. If the sick person stays ill longer than is appropriate (malingers), they may be stigmatized. Theorists using the conflict perspective suggest that issues with the healthcare system, as with most other social problems, are rooted in capitalist society. There are numerous examples of demedicalization in history as well. If you redistribute this textbook in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: It is not only the poor who suffer from the conflict between dominant and subordinate groups. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller and more accurate picture of how we experience and understand health and wellness. OpenStax College, Sociology 2e. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. Orem’s Self-Care Model designates a structure in which the nurse supports the client to retain a sufficient level of self-care. Your site offers a wealth of information for perspective clients and pre-professionals. Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Illness - Term Paper Example. The exemption also requires legitimation by a physician; that is, a physician must certify that the illness is genuine. This first video clip gives some examples of ways that those with HIV are discriminated against, even within the medical community. In this model of health, doctors serve as gatekeepers, deciding who is healthy and who is sick—a relationship in which the doctor has all the power. Parsons argues that since the sick are unable to fulfill their normal societal roles, their sickness weakens the society. The sick person also has the right of being exempt from normal social roles; they are not required to fulfill the obligation of a well person and can avoid normal responsibilities without censure. While interactionism does acknowledge the subjective nature of diagnosis, it is important to remember who most benefits when a behavior becomes defined as illness. According to theorists working in this perspective, health and illness are both socially constructed. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. You may prefer just one of the theories that follow, or you may find that combining theories and perspectives provides a fuller picture of how we experience health and wellness. HIDE THIS PAPER GRAB THE BEST PAPER 92.5% of users find it useful. Why? Memory structures are considered responsible for the way in which information is perceived and processed, as also how it is stored, remembered, and disremembered. However, this exemption is temporary and relative to the severity of the illness. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. Origins of this approach have emanated from multiple disciplines over the past century or more. Should alcoholism and other addictions be medicalized? With alcoholism defined as a disease and not a personal choice, alcoholics came to be viewed with more compassion and understanding. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PRACTICE WITH ADULTS Name: Institutional Affiliation: Theoretical Perspectives in Health and Social Care Practice with Adults Introduction As individual ages, there is a need for caregivers to have a better understanding of the aging process in a bid to improve the quality of life for these people. (Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress/Wikimedia Commons), An example of medicalization is illustrated by the history of how our society views alcohol and alcoholism. Drunks were not treated in a sympathetic way because, at that time, it was thought that it was their own fault that they could not stop drinking. Additionally, in their criticism of the power differential between doctor and patient, they are perhaps dismissive of the hard-won medical expertise possessed by doctors and not patients, which renders a truly egalitarian relationship more elusive. Within the micro camp, two other perspectives exist: symbolic interactionism and utilitarianism (also called rational choice theory or exchange theory) (Collins, 1994). Did you have an idea for improving this content? As we discussed in the beginning of the module, interactionists focus on the specific meanings and causes people attribute to illness. It is not only the poor who suffer from the conflict between dominant and subordinate groups. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. It was very informative for myself and I … Learn about the three different theoretical perspectives on health and medicine from structural functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic interactionism. If you use this textbook as a bibliographic reference, then you should cite it as follows: During the nineteenth century, those who drank too much were considered bad, lazy people. According to conflict theorists, capitalism and the pursuit of profit lead to the commodification of health: the changing of something not generally thought of as an abstract object into something that can be bought and sold in a marketplace in order to create profit for someone somewhere. This has since been reinterpreted as a completely appropriate response to being enslaved. Read and watch a dissenting view: http://openstaxcollege.org/l/addiction\_medicalization, Conrad, Peter and Joseph W. Schneider. While conflict theorists are accurate in pointing out certain inequalities in the health care system, they do not give enough credit to medical advances that would not have been made without an economic structure to support and reward researchers: a structure dependent on profitability. For questions regarding this license, please contact. They therefore control the degree to which the individuals and groups without political and economic power will remain subordinate. Utilise critical appraisal skills in identifying and examining the key theoretical perspectives underpinning health promotion and how it is applied to contemporary health and social care issues. And what about people who are sick, but are unwilling to leave their positions for any number of reasons (personal/social obligations, financial need, or lack of insurance, for instance). The Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH) promotes cooperation for public health on the island of Ireland. 1963. Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. Each of the three major sociological theoretical perspectives approach the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. Parsons, Talcott. … Theoretical perspective Major assumptions; Functionalism: Good health and effective medical care are essential for the smooth functioning of society. Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness. We now turn to these four theoretical perspectives, which are summarized in Table 1.1 “Theory Snapshot”. TheoreTical PersPecTives on Medicine and socieTy inTroducTion In this chapter, the major fields of scholarship and research in the humanities and social sciences that have examined the social role of scientific medicine in western societies are reviewed for the theoretical developments which have occurred since the mid-20th century. While this market solutions model has indeed provided many advances, a conflict theorist would likely respond that greater state-sponsored investment–with better public health outcomes as the goal–could also effect the same evolutions in treatment. Apply functionalist, conflict theorist, and symbolic interactionist perspectives to health issues, https://www.hiv.gov/federal-response/federal-activities-agencies/activities-combating-hiv-stigma-and-discrimination, https://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]:[email protected]/Theoretical-Perspectives-on-Health-and-Medicine, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6c8BCZd6GXU, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Tm0j07lJUw, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yiU8nQ_-q9s. Each of the three major theoretical perspectives approaches the topics of health, illness, and medicine differently. Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine. If the sick person stays ill longer than is appropriate (malingers), she may be stigmatized. Health Promotion Perspectives is an international platinum (open access) journal that is peer-reviewed and multidisciplinary forum for publication of those research that aimed at understanding of the implications and approaches to health promotion and public health. Drunks were not treated in a sympathetic way because, at that time, it was thought that it was their own fault that they could not stop drinking. Which theoretical perspective do you think best explains the sociology of health? 1. One of the theoretical perspectives of psychology is cognitive. Watch this video to review and see examples of how each of these key paradigms views medicine. Modification, adaptation, and original content. "Download for free at. The exemption also requires legitimization by a physician; that is, a physician must certify that the illness is genuine. During the 19th century, people who drank too much were considered bad, lazy people. This book clearly situates health communication within its social context. Talcott Parsons (1951) was the first to discuss this in terms of the sick role: patterns of expectations that define appropriate behavior for the sick and for those who take care of them. A more recent example is homosexuality, which was labeled a mental disorder or a sexual orientation disturbance by the American Psychological Association until 1973. The sick person also has the right of being exempt from normal social roles; she is not required to fulfill the obligation of a well person and can avoid her normal responsibilities without censure. However, this exemption is temporary and relative to the severity of the illness. Purpose: This paper presents some key theoretical issues about trust, and seeks to demonstrate their relevance to understanding of, and research on, health systems. Health communication is key to promoting good population and individual health outcomes. 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